Bloating, digestion, anxiety + fat loss: THE SCIENCE OF YOUR GUT

once our friends welcome back to my channel I'm in Sydney I mean Coney Tower I could really be anywhere but I am in Sydney which has to take my word for it today I wanted to make this video about gut health so it's actually a massive massive topic in the last five years we've had like up to 20,000 publications which make up over 80% of the total publications in gut health for the last 40 years madness so people are going wild to be honest I will say feel like I see this across like media like I look at newspapers I'm seeing gut health I look at magazines I've seen gut health I don't get the supermarket I'm seeing kombucha I'm not gonna lie I actually really enjoy kombucha but I'm seeing all the products out there talking about gut health suggesting that we know so much about gut health and I just want to know what we know what we can say with confidence first is just what is theory so that I can just be better equipped at knowing whether okay is this actually scientifically proven or is this just like a product that's available based on I don't know probably not science fun facts before we go into talking about more of the in-depth science we have about two kilos of bacteria in our bodies isn't that mad that's mad two kilos yeah have you ladies but we also in that to cure bacteria have the same amount of bacterial cells than we do human cells in our entire body just process it I certainly new to every Thai sailor and now before we start with like the three main topics that I wanted to talk about I kind of wanted to talk about like definitions just so that you're not like what you talk about throughout the whole video so when I talk about gut microbiota I'm talking about all of the micro organisms so small organisms fungus bacteria viruses that live in the gut so that's the gut microbiota and if I ever refer to gut microbiome I'm talking about all of those microorganisms plus any genetic material that it creates that microbiota can be determined by your health stateís your age your sex your lifestyle your diet your environment how you were born any kind of like drugs that you might have been taking including antibiotics so all of those things and it's thought that we have over a thousand different types of microorganisms in our microbiota gut microbiota is really really important in making vitamins like vitamin K vitamin B it's also really important in detoxifying certain drugs and it also helps our immune system distinguish between what is dangerous to our health and what can be beneficial and it also really helps in digestion and there is lots of research emerging now saying that when things go wrong with the microbiota it can be implicated in cancer immunity obesity diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases but the three areas I wanted to focus on in this video because I think they're the most applicable and the ones that we may me get sold to like online or in supermarkets is for bloating and digestion fat loss and then also like mental health by trans aya tea and things like that those are the three areas I wanted to focus on if you liked this video make sure to give me a big thumbs up and hit the subscribe button okay so first off it digestion and bloating I feel like this is a big one so I wanted to kind of explore how they got microbiota is linked to digestion and bloating so bloating could be caused by an imbalance of the gut microbiota but bloating could also be caused by our diet our lifestyle how much we sleep how restrictive we are with our foods how much water we drink how much air we swallow yeah that's a weird one but it's true how much air we swallow of any use of like antibiotics or any other drugs so in terms of foods that could impact the microbiome foods like sugar replacements like sweeteners aspartamay other sweeteners could cause an imbalance in the microbiome we'll say things like emulsifiers so emulsifiers are found in lots of processed foods usually to like thicken something up they can also cause an imbalance in the microbiome and once you've got that imbalance that might be causing the bloating the reason they might be affecting the microbiota is because they might be either changing the diversity of the microbiota or they might be impacting like the balance of certain like really important bacteria that might help us in digestion they've actually quite a bit of research now looking into restrictive diets so clean eating diets gluten-free diets foods where you're really restricting certain food groups like keto or things like that and they're seeing that it impairs their gut microbiota because it reduces the gut microbiomes diversity so for example that like a couple of years ago it was all the fad to like do gluten-free and a lot of people went gluten-free because they thought they had in tolerances to gluten in fact very few people were celiac were diagnosed celiac but because they've made that change that gluten-free diet changed their microbiota and they had a lower microbial diversity in their gut it also led them to being more of a risk of heart disease because they were avoiding like grains that are important to avoid heart disease so that was quite like an interesting finding because sometimes we're trying to do good but actually sometimes that can have like a negative effect and because we've neglected like lots of other things another thing that can cause bloating is consumption of foods that when we don't really digest that well in our small intestine it travels down to our cone on there it's digested by certain bacteria and then they release gas so it could just be food that you struggle to digest in the first place it ends up going into your colon fermenting that way using bacteria they release gas and that's why you might feel like flatulent or let's just say your fart in a lot like I'm not going to try and make it sound posh even though I have a British accent and the Queen would say otherwise so there is like a person specific element and it could be really helpful for you to look out for which foods have that effect on you so what can you actually do about it like what can you do about bloating is there anything you can do to change your gut microbiota to help with bloating and digestion and to be honest like leading reason don't feel like they know enough to say that you can claim a certain diet can help you that a certain food can help you restore your gut microbiota or make sure that your microbiota is that like optimum health like we just don't know enough to say that a certain diet works or a certain diet doesn't work if we jump to conclusions like that and start following like low fodmap diet or keto diet or clean eating diet or whatever kind of diet is slightly restrictive then we could be restricting that the microbial diversity that our gut might have because I mentioned earlier that like sweeteners might have an impact on like the balance of your gut microbiota trying to minimize the intake of those might help of digestion but again it's just something that it's worth trying you might also find that by reducing the amount of processed foods thereby reducing amount of emulsifier that you're consuming might also help with digestion of bloating and in terms of probiotics I feel like that's one thing that I see all over the place it depends on the strains of bacteria but also it is very patient dependent so some patients respond really well to probiotics because the microbes in the probiotic that you're taking can colonize your gut and they'll stay there and they'll work for you whereas with some patients there's no colonization like it just doesn't happen and a lot of the studies that we were looking at before and we're looking at stool sample don't you think in your poop but your poo is not necessarily what's representative of what's happening in your gut and we only found that out like two years ago so there's been like 10 years of studies on like poo samples and now we're just finding out well ok that might not actually be that relevant so again we're back to a new starting position where researchers are gonna have to look back into probiotic effectiveness and actually look at studies in vivo in your gut to see whether they're actually working but there aren't many negative impacts of probiotics so it could be worth a try again like you're trying it it's going to very person dependent it might work for you but it might not another thing I feel like we all know is to make sure that we have enough fiber in our diets fiber is actually a prebiotic and prebiotics are food for bacteria in your gut so if you have enough fiber then bacteria in your gut can feed off that rather than starting to feed away you're like mucous lining which can then cause like inflammation and other problems so that's what I would try if you were a person who does really / is strict on food making sure to be a little bit more inclusive if you do notice that you have a lot of sweetened foods then just trying to cut back down on the amount of sweetness that you're having the amount of processed food that you're having and also if you feel like you want to try probiotics and by all means try them but just know that it's probiotic dependent and also patient dependent so it might not colonize in your gut and it might not work for you but it could so again that's kind of what we know so far about digestion and bloating and how they've got microbiota is linked to it the next off week I wanted to talk about was fat loss and how the gut microbiota can be implicated in obesity and fat loss there was actually a major study that was published in Nature so nature is one of the top journals nature cell science people work their entire careers to get their work published in those journals like they're really really highly reputable and there was this study that was done by Tom bow its Howell and they looked at a mouse who was brought up in a sterile environment so it actually had no gut microbiota they call them germ-free mice and they implanted the gut bacteria from an obese Mouse into a germ-free Mouse and that germ-free Mouse put on fat even though it maintained its calories exactly the same it ate exactly the same way as it did it just put on more weight that led to everyone going absolutely wild on the whole study of whether or not we could treat obesity by treating the gut microbiota so since then there's been like so many study but what we found is that even though it's really interesting in mice and that's what we see in mice we don't necessarily see that in humans so the theory that microbiota could cause obesity was that there were certain bacteria that could harvest more energy from the food so you're actually extracting more calories from the same amount of food that you're eating and then others that suggested that it impacted certain like mechanisms to do with fat storage in your fat cells your adipocytes and then it could impact your society which is basically how all you feel how satisfied you feel after a meal and people got really excited because when they observed the microbiota of an obese individual and a lean individual they noticed that there were differences however as more and more people did this research there were papers that challenged the idea that an obese versus a lean person's microbiota was actually significantly different and a couple of years ago there were some researchers at the Weizmann Institute who said that actually what we should be looking at is in the actual body like in people's guts what is the microbiota rather than looking at people's feces so a lot of researchers were assuming that the feces or their poo was basically representative of their microbiota and that might not necessarily be the case so we're back to the point where we still have a lot to learn we're still trying to figure out which way the causality guys like is obesity causing a change in microbiota is it changing microbiota causing obesity or are they both being affected by something external we might have a better understanding of it in the next like three to five years definitely Dino protein pick up your bum like don't go out and pick so I'm kind of like runway model and just be like I want her to shove it up there don't do it cuz Aimee we don't know B that's just kind of gross okay and the third and last topic I wanted to talk about with mental health so how is the gut microbiota involved in mental health so there's actually a lot of strong evidence that suggests that there is a strong link between the gut and the brain and they call that the gut axis so the GARP communicates a lot with the brain via the central nervous system and also releases a lot of light chemicals and hormones and they interplay quite significantly they're always communicating but we're still kind of working out the full extent of this what we do is that stress cannot release a hormone called cortisol cortisol in the gut can affect permeability of the gut movement of the gut I'm also like secretion of mucus so mucus is where some microbiota like to live in and so that can affect it in that way there's also studies that show that 90% of serotonin is produced in the gut serotonin is our happy neurotransmitter and also that some bacteria can produce dopamine dopamine is another like reward factor neurotransmitter so those two can play a big impact in like our overall mood so the theory is that if there's something wrong with your guard board like there's an issue with your gut microbiota that you might not be producing as many as those like feel-good neurotransmitters so we don't feel as good so we might feel a little bit low another area that's really interesting we're not really going to delve too much into now is how gut microbiome might affect autism and we'll say like neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's or I mean trophic lateral sclerosis if you have like high stress levels or you're not sleeping enough that can also impact your microbiome so going like from the brain – they got the other way okay so what can you do about it so there's quite a lot of research that is exploring the effect of probiotics on like anxiety and symptoms of anxiety they pull those psycho biotics and they're looking at whether psycho-boy biotics can cause an improvement in like how good you feel and then quite a few studies they show that it can be effective for some symptoms of anxiety and depression and the way that works is that with the probiotics it can restore a more diverse microbiota therefore increasing the amount of serotonin produced or dopamine produced and therefore you feel a lot better and obviously that's a much more natural better way than taking antidepressants because there are always negative side effects to taking antidepressant so that's definitely the area that people are looking at however there's still like a big need to look at more human randomized controlled trials so not small trials lots more long-term studies are needed to look at it to be like really sure that this is a good way to go about it another thing that people are looking at sleep sleep is an incredible and tall to really kind of improve your overall health but it has been shown to improve like gut microbiome so making sure to get like enough sleep for you is important seven to nine hours is like the recommended average amount of sleep time that wants to sleep although it does depend on your activity level so if you're really active some top athletes will sleep up to 12 hours so it really depends and there's not just the hours of time that you're sleeping is also making sure that you're getting good quality sleep so making sure that you're not getting away cannot buy a partner snoring or I'm just using that as an example Kismayo snores really loud but you guys not I mean maybe the solution is just you know chalk them out I think going enough enough you're ruining my gut microbiome you know just shove those words out and they'll completely understand and another thing is making sure that you're eating enough for your body you're managing your stress levels and relative energy deficiency is really interesting subject so crude explanation of relative energy deficiency is just not having enough energy for all of your bodily functions to occur so usually what happens is that your body goes into survival mode so things like digestion aren't at the top of its list things like having your period aren't at the top of its list the top of its lists are keeping your heart going so it's really important to make sure that you're eating enough so that all of your bodily functions are happening and they're happening like regularly and properly and so that's really important as well to make sure that you're maintaining a good gut microbiota and in turn could mental health okay so I've gone through this topics I really wanted to go by now I'm just gonna conclude by saying that I feel like we know less about the gut microbiota than what magazines and newspapers seem to suggest like when you read magazines and newspapers and things like that and videos or whatever it really feels like we know a lot but actually we don't know that much it lot of what we know so far has been don't animals that's not necessarily transferable to humans again like experimental procedures might not be that like accurate or they might have assumed something that is really important like when we look at someone's poo it might not be necessarily what's happening inside someone's gun when we observe differences in like micro biases between an obese individual or a lean individual like that's exciting but it doesn't necessarily mean that we've found that there's a causality and I think it is really like cool to start hypothesizing what links might be causing what or things like that but just be aware of people trying to sell you stuff and the only area which is kind of emerging is in probiotics but again a very person dependent very probiotic dependent so just be wary we don't really know how to heal your gut yeah even the top scientists are trying to figure that one out be wary of people trying to tell you to cut out foods there is obviously the low fodmap diet but again it's very very restrictive it's helpful for some people who are extremely ill and have to go through that just remember the example I gave of the gluten free diet with the non celiac to increase their risk of heart disease you might be doing more harm than good so from all of the research I've done and believe me I've been through like a lot a lot a lot not 20,000 obviously but a lot of papers a lot of meta-analysis and I feel like a lot of it just supports having a balanced varied diet exercising frequently sleeping well managing stress levels is still the best solution to having a healthy body a healthy gut and I'm gonna keep doing that when I keep doing wondering if there is some strong evidence that suggests that what I'm doing is wrong then I will make another video about it I'll let you guys know I'm always keeping up to date with the science I'm looking at new things and I will make another video about it and let you guys know what we find out until then I hope you guys enjoyed this one thank you guys so much for watching and I will see you guys next time I [Music]

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